Restful风格Web API构建流程

Restful风格Web API构建流程

Tans 890 2022-03-20

Restful风格Web API构建流程

1.技术栈

框架类型框架名称
基本框架SpringBoot
持久层Spring JPA
关系型数据库Mysql
缓存数据库Redis
渲染引擎Thymeleaf
权限控制框架Spring Security

2.编写Restful风格接口类

2.1 添加ResponseUtil类(用来返回Resuful风格Json数据)

/**
 * @Describe: 类描述
 * @Author: tyf
 * @CreateTime: 2021/11/15
 **/
public class ResponseUtil {
    public static <T> void restResponse(HttpServletResponse resp, HttpStatus status, RestResult<T> responseVo) throws IOException {
        resp.setStatus(status.value());
        resp.setContentType(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON.toString());
        resp.getOutputStream().write(new ObjectMapper().writeValueAsBytes(responseVo));
    }
}

2.2添加ResultEnum枚举类(用来返回服务状态)

/**
 * @Describe: 类描述
 * @Author: tyf
 * @CreateTime: 2021/11/15
 **/
@Getter
public enum ResultEnum {
    INTERNAL_WRONG(500, "内部错误!");

    private final Integer resultCode;
    private final String resultMsg;

    ResultEnum(Integer resultCode, String resultMsg) {
        this.resultCode = resultCode;
        this.resultMsg = resultMsg;
    }
} 

2.3添加RestResult类(Restful风格返回体)

@Data
@JsonInclude(JsonInclude.Include.NON_NULL)
public class RestResult<T> {

    private Integer code;
    private String message;
    private T data;
    private HttpStatus httpStatus;

    public RestResult(Integer code, String message) {
        this.code = code;
        this.message = message;
    }

    public RestResult(Integer code, T data) {
        this.code = code;
        this.data = data;
    }

    public RestResult(HttpStatus status, T data){
        this.httpStatus = status;
        this.data = data;
    }

    public static <T> RestResult<T> success(Integer code, T data) {
        return new RestResult<>(code, data);
    }

    public static <T> RestResult<T> success(T data) {
        return new RestResult<>(200, data);
    }

    public static <T> RestResult<T> success(Integer code, String message) {
        return new RestResult<>(code, message);
    }

    public static <T> RestResult<T> success(ResultEnum resultEnum) {
        return new RestResult<>(resultEnum.getResultCode(), resultEnum.getResultMsg());
    }

    public static <T> RestResult<T> error(Integer code, String message) {
        return new RestResult<>(code, message);
    }

    public static <T> RestResult<T> error(Integer code, T data) {
        return new RestResult<>(code, data);
    }

    public static <T> RestResult<T> error(String message) {
        return new RestResult<>(500, message);
    }

    public static <T> RestResult<T> error(ResultEnum resultEnum) {
        return new RestResult<>(resultEnum.getResultCode(), resultEnum.getResultMsg());
    }
    public static <T> RestResult<T> success(HttpStatus status, T data){
        return new RestResult<>(status, data);
    }
}

3. 引入相关依赖以及配置基本环境

3.1 编辑Maven配置文件pom.xml

  • 添加父文件项目约束

    <parent>
         <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
         <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parent</artifactId>
         <version>2.5.6</version>
         <relativePath/> <!-- lookup parent from repository -->
    </parent>
    
  • 添加依赖

        <dependencies>
            <!--引入jpa依赖-->
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-data-jpa</artifactId>
            </dependency>
            <!--引入jdbc驱动器-->
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-jdbc</artifactId>
            </dependency>
            <!--引入Spring Security-->
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-security</artifactId>
            </dependency>
            <!--引入渲染引擎-->
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-thymeleaf</artifactId>
            </dependency>
            <!--基础web框架-->
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
            </dependency>
            <!--渲染引擎结合前端完成操作-->
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.thymeleaf.extras</groupId>
                <artifactId>thymeleaf-extras-springsecurity5</artifactId>
            </dependency>
            <!--待选:Excel处理-->
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.apache.poi</groupId>
                <artifactId>poi</artifactId>
                <version>5.0.0</version>
            </dependency>
            <!--热更新-->
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-boot-devtools</artifactId>
                <scope>runtime</scope>
                <optional>true</optional>
            </dependency>
            <!--连接器-->
            <dependency>
                <groupId>mysql</groupId>
                <artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
                <scope>runtime</scope>
            </dependency>
            <!--类管理模块-->
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.projectlombok</groupId>
                <artifactId>lombok</artifactId>
                <optional>true</optional>
            </dependency>
            <!--测试框架-->
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
                <scope>test</scope>
            </dependency>
        </dependencies>
    

3.2 配置项目配置文件application.yml

spring:
  imageProxy: https://pic1.xuehuaimg.com/proxy/  #配置图床
  datasource:							 #配置数据源
    driver-class-name: com.mysql.cj.jdbc.Driver
    url: jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/sms?characterEncoding=utf8&serverTimezone=Asia/Shanghai
    username: sms
    password: 123456

  jpa:								#配置jpa
    hibernate:
      ddl-auto: update #打开项目自动更新
    show-sql: true	   #显示sql调用语句,建议produce阶段关闭
    database-platform: org.hibernate.dialect.MySQL8Dialect
server:
  port: 8083				#配置端口号

3.3(可选)配置SpringSecurity

3.3.1 配置文件

/**
 * @Describe: 类描述
 * @Author: tyf
 * @CreateTime: 2021/11/15
 **/
@Configuration
@EnableWebSecurity
/*开启方法权限认证*/
@EnableGlobalMethodSecurity(securedEnabled=true)
public class SecurityConfigurer extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {

//    private final TigerLogoutSuccessHandler logoutSuccessHandler = new TigerLogoutSuccessHandler("/login");

    public static final String[] NO_AUTH_LIST={
            "/login",
            "/register",
            "/static/**",
            "/img/**",
            "/css/**",
            "/js/**"
    };

    @Override
    public void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
        http.csrf().disable().formLogin().loginPage("/login").loginProcessingUrl("/login").usernameParameter(
                        "username").permitAll()
                //失败处理
                .failureHandler((req, resp, e) -> ResponseUtil.restResponse(resp, HttpStatus.FORBIDDEN, RestResult.error(403, e.getMessage())))
                //成功处理
                .successHandler((req ,resp, e)-> ResponseUtil.restResponse(resp, HttpStatus.OK,
                        RestResult.success(200, "登录成功!"))
                .permitAll()
                .and().exceptionHandling()
                //请求登录处理,改变默认跳转登录页
                .authenticationEntryPoint((req, resp, e) -> resp.sendRedirect("/login"))
                //没有权限访问
                .accessDeniedHandler((req, resp, e) -> ResponseUtil.restResponse(resp, HttpStatus.FORBIDDEN, RestResult.error(403, "抱歉,你当前的身份无权访问")))
                //设置最大一人同时登陆
                .and().sessionManagement().maximumSessions(1)
                .expiredSessionStrategy(s -> ResponseUtil.restResponse(s.getResponse(), HttpStatus.FORBIDDEN, RestResult.error(499, "您的账号在别的地方登录,当前登录已失效")))
                .and()
                //设置登出
                .and().logout().logoutUrl("/logout").logoutSuccessUrl("/login").deleteCookies("JSESSIONID").permitAll()
                .and().authorizeRequests().antMatchers(NO_AUTH_LIST).permitAll()
                .antMatchers("/*.svg","/*.png","/*.js","/*.css").permitAll()
                .and().authorizeRequests().anyRequest().authenticated();
    }

    @Bean
    public PasswordEncoder passwordEncoder() {
        return new BCryptPasswordEncoder();
    }
}

3.3.2 自定义Detail接口

/**
 * @Describe: 类描述
 * @Author: tyf
 * @CreateTime: 2021/11/15
 **/
public class TeacherDetail extends Teacher implements UserDetails{

    public TeacherDetail(Teacher teacher){
        BeanUtils.copyProperties(teacher, this);
    }
    @Override
    public Collection<? extends GrantedAuthority> getAuthorities() {
        return null;
    }

    @Override
    public String getPassword() {
        return super.getPassword();
    }

    @Override
    public String getUsername() {
        return super.getName();
    }

    @Override
    public boolean isAccountNonExpired() {
        return true;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean isAccountNonLocked() {
        return true;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean isCredentialsNonExpired() {
        return true;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean isEnabled() {
        return true;
    }
}

3.3.3 实现UserDetailService接口

/**
 * @Describe: 类描述
 * @Author: tyf
 * @CreateTime: 2021/11/15
 **/
@Service
public class TeacherServiceImpl implements TeacherService, UserDetailsService {

    @Resource
    private TeacherMapper teacherMapper;

    @Override
    public UserDetails loadUserByUsername(String s) throws UsernameNotFoundException {
        Teacher teacher = new Teacher();
        teacher.setName(s);
        Example<Teacher> teacherExample = Example.of(teacher);
        Optional<Teacher> resultTeacher = teacherMapper.findOne(teacherExample);
        if(resultTeacher.isPresent()){
            return new TeacherDetail(resultTeacher.get());
        }
        return null;
    }
}

4.(可选)其他配置

@Component
public class WebMvcConfigurerAdapter implements WebMvcConfigurer {


    @Resource(name="thymeleafViewResolver")
    private ThymeleafViewResolver thymeleafViewResolver;

    @Value("${spring.imageProxy}")
    private String imageProxy = "";


    //Thymeleaf增加全局变量。用来图像加速等;
    @Override
    public void configureViewResolvers(ViewResolverRegistry registry) {

        if (thymeleafViewResolver != null) {
            Map<String, Object> vars = new HashMap<>(1);
            vars.put("imageProxy", imageProxy);
            thymeleafViewResolver.setStaticVariables(vars);
        }
        WebMvcConfigurer.super.configureViewResolvers(registry);
    }
}

5.开始编写

  1. Mapper
  2. Service
  3. Controller

附录

1.目录结构

│  StudentMannagerSystemApplication.java
│
├─conf
│      SecurityConfigurer.java
│      WebMvcConfigurerAdapter.java
│
├─controller
│      ScoreController.java
│      StudentController.java
│      TeacherController.java
│
├─enums
│      ResultEnum.java
│
├─mapper
│      ScoreMapper.java
│      StudentMapper.java
│      TeacherMapper.java
│
├─model
│      RestResult.java
│      TeacherDetail.java
│
├─pojo
│      Score.java
│      Student.java
│      Teacher.java
│
├─service
│  │  ScoreService.java
│  │  StudentService.java
│  │  TeacherService.java
│  │
│  └─impl
│          ScoreServiceImpl.java
│          StudentServiceImpl.java
│          TeacherServiceImpl.java
│
└─tools
        PasswordTools.java
        ResponseUtil.java